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Morphology

Adjective or adverb? (I)

Adjectives and adverbs add information and give detail about other elements of the sentence. Adjectives always describe nouns, while adverbs modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.


In this note we are going to review the use of adjectives in Spanish:

1. ADJECTIVES

An adjective is a word used to describe nouns by giving them characteristics to differentiate them from other nouns. Adjectives can be classified in two main groups: adjectives of quality and determinative adjectives.

1.1 ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY

Adjectives of quality describe and define a quality of a noun and agree with it.

La camisa blanca.

El cielo azul.

La chica guapa.

Los buenos estudiantes.

1.2 DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES

Determinative adjectives describe nouns to differentiate them from other nouns, delimiting their meaning. Among them we find: possessive adjectives, demonstrative adjectives, indefinite adjectives, numeral adjectives, interrogative adjectives.

1.2.1 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

Possessive adjectives add information about possession.

Esta es mi casa.

Nuestro padre es profesor.

Su jefe es de Madrid.

Tu perro se ha escapado.

1.2.2 DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES

Demonstrative adjectives are used to place a noun in the space or in the time, in relation to the speaker or to the subject.

Esta tarde voy al cine.

Aquella niña es mi prima.

Ese abrigo es de Amanda.

Echo de menos aquellos tiempos.

1.2.3 INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES

Indefinite adjectives give general and imprecise information about the noun they refer to.

Algunos alumnos han suspendido.

He comido muchas fresas.

Tengo demasiados problemas.

Ambos niños tienen fiebre.

1.2.4 NUMERAL ADJECTIVES

Numeral adjectives assign a number to the noun they refer to.

Faltan tres días para mi cumpleaños.

El primer chico es muy guapo.

Mi madre compró siete manzanas.

Me gustan esas dos casas.

1.2.5 INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES

Interrogative adjectives go with nouns in interrogative sentences.

¿Cuántos hijos tienes?

¿Qué libros has leído?

¿Cuál color prefieres?

¿Cuáles te han gustado más?

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