Conjunctions are a class of words that are characterized by:
- Invariable words: they do not admit changes of gender and number.
- Usually atonic or unstressed words: they do not have a graphic accent.
There are two types of conjunctions:
1. Coordinating conjunctions:
Its function is to unite words or sentences without any of the coordinated members depending on the other, that is, they do not create hierarchy between words or coordinated sentences; the words are at the same level.
“María y Pedro van a casa.”
(María and Pedro go home.)
“Mi perro tiene cinco años y el suyo tiene diez.”
(My dog is five years old and his has ten.)
“Él tiene un apartamento y ella vive en una caravana.” (He has an apartment and she lives in a caravan.)
In the first example, words are joined, in this case, two nouns; and, in the second and third, two sentences are joined.
There are two types of coordinating conjunctions:
1.- Simple coordinating conjunctions:
- Copulative: y (e) (and), ni (nor).
- Disjunctive: o (u) (or)
- Opposite: pero, sino (but).
2.- Composite or discontinuous coordinating conjunctions:
- Copulative: ni…ni (neither…nor), tanto…como (as much/many as), tanto…cuanto, así…como (as well as).
- Disjunctive: o…o (either…or), ya…ya, bien…bien.
In the post the coordinating conjunctions in Spanish, we explain you each of them in detail.
2. Subordinating conjunctions:
Its function is to make the elements that relate depend, that is, they establish hierarchy. One of the elements is considered the main one, the one that is before the conjunction, and the other the subordinate, the one that is after the conjunction.
“Te digo que laves la ropa.” (I tell you to wash your clothes.)
“Me contó que tenía una bicicleta nueva.” (She told me that she had a new bike.)
“No sé si él tiene hambre.” (I don’t know if he is hungry.)
There are different types of subordinating conjunctions:
- Substantive: que (that), si (if).
- Conditionals: si (if).
- Causal: porque (because).
- Concessive: aunque (although).
- Consecutive: (tan/tanto)…que (so…that).
- Illative: luego, conque (so then).
- Comparative: más/menos/igual…que (more, less…than/ as…as)
- Except: salvo (except for).
In the post Las conjunciones subordinantes we explain you each of them in detail.
Edurne Garde/Practica Español