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Science Nivel C1

The memory of the old people improves with electrical stimulation

London / The loss of short-term memory, associated with age, can be reversed by stimulating certain areas of the brain at a specific rate, revealed a study from the University of Boston (Massachusetts, United States) published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.

Short-term memory, that is, the ability to retain information briefly for later use, decreases with ageing.

In younger adults, it is linked to specific neuronal interactions within and between regions of the brain and it is thought that this process involves two patterns of neural oscillation or brain waves called gamma rhythm and theta rhythm, in the prefrontal cortex and temporal lobe of the brain.

Through the use of electroencephalography, the researchers examined how interactions in older adults change and how they relate to short-term memory.

For this they used a non-invasive brain stimulation procedure with which to modulate the interactions of the individual brain waves associated with this type of memory.

They selected a group of 84 adults-half composed of people from 20 to 29 years old and the rest from 60 to 76 years-who were evaluated on how they performed a task that involved short-term memory with and without brain stimulation.

Without brain stimulation, older adults were slower and less accurate than younger adults, which showed greater interactions between theta and gamma rhythms in the left temporal cortex and greater synchronization of theta in the frontotemporal regions.

Upon receiving brain stimulation, the accuracy with which the elderly operated improved and came closer to that of the young, an effect that lasted up to fifty minutes after the impulses were administered.

Robert Reinhart and John Nguyen, who led the research, pointed out that these findings may provide a basis for future interventions aimed at cognitive decline related to age. (April, 2019, EFE/Practica Español)

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Question 1
The text talks about a study... (El texto habla de un estudio...)  
sobre cómo unas estimulaciones cerebrales pueden revertir la pérdida de memoria.
que explica por qué las personas tienen pérdida de memoria.
detallado sobre qué es la memoria a corto plazo.
Question 2
According to the text, when a person ages... (Según el texto,  cuando una persona envejece...)    
su memoria a corto plazo va mejorando cada vez más.
tiene cada vez más dificultad para conservar información en la memoria a corto plazo.
no tiene ningún problema para retener información a corto plazo.
Question 3
It's said in the text that researchers... (En el texto se dice que los investigadores...)  
descartaron la necesidad de realizar un experimento con jóvenes y mayores.
pusieron a prueba la memoria a corto plazo de jóvenes y mayores.
desmintieron que hayan puesto a prueba la memoria a corto plazo de jóvenes y mayores.
Question 4
About that stimulation of the brain, it's said... (Sobre esa estimulación del cerebro se dice que...)    
permite modular las interacciones de las ondas cerebrales relacionadas con esa memoria.
la forma en que la hicieron puede causar daños en las algunas zonas cerebrales.
no sirvió para que los mayores mejoraran en la prueba realizada.
Question 5
According to the video... (Según el vídeo...)      
acaba de descubrirse que el estrés está asociado con la pérdida de memoria.
se desmiente que el estrés afecte negativamente a la memoria.
se descubrieron los receptores neuronales causantes de fallos en la memoria por el estrés.
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