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Madrid / The winter, which begins on December 21 at 5:28 local time, is expected to be warmer than usual in all of Spain and little rain, after the driest autumn in the last century and the third since 1965, behind those recorded in 1978 and 1981.

In a press conference to present the winter seasonal forecast, the spokeswoman of the State Agency of Meteorology (Aemet), Ana Casals, has advanced that the climatological models indicate that, in general, the values in January, February and March they will be between 1 and 3 degrees above the average for the time of year in almost the entire country.

Regarding rainfall, she explained that there are no significant signs of rain in the three months of winter, although, for now, January “is more likely in the western third”, while March shows a “sign to be the month more dry “of the whole winter season.

However, the rain regime “will be normal for the time of year,” said the spokeswoman, and, “although we must see in positive, they will not solve the drought.”

This situation of scarce rainfall continues the autumn line, which as a whole has been very warm and very dry, with an average rainfall of 84 liters per square meter, which is 59 percent below normal.

Ana Casals explained that “to talk about climate change we can only look at temperatures, not precipitation,” as Spain “is a country of great droughts and, although we know it will rain less, we can not attribute it to climate change“.

September was the driest month, while October and November accumulated a little more precipitation, although not very significant, which puts this fall at the head in terms of shortage of rain throughout the 21st century and third in the last 52 years.

The spokeswoman from Aemet explained that “the fact of an autumn with little rainfall must be sought in the predominance of a situation of anticyclonic blockade, which has not allowed the entry of storms to the Peninsula or storms in the Levantine area.”

Another peculiarity of this station has been the marked contrast in the thermal oscillation -difference between night and daytime temperatures-, up to 2.4 degrees Celsius above normal for this season.

Due to its intensity and duration, the most outstanding warm episode in the autumn took place in the first half of October in the Peninsula, with 39.5 degrees Celsius in Cordoba, and between days 12 and 14 of the same month in the Canary Islands, and even 38.7 degrees in Fuerteventura, the highest temperature in autumn in the archipelago.

And as for rains, the most outstanding episode occurred between November 28 and 30, when up to 100 liters per square meter were collected in Cantabria and the provinces of Cádiz and Seville, while between 16 and 20 of October, more than 90 percent of the total monthly rainfall was accumulated in an episode that affected all of Spain.

According to Aemet, none of these precipitations supposed the maximum value of the corresponding series, and in fact in six observatories the accumulated rains in this autumn were even inferior to the minimum.

However, the year 2017 is on track to be one of the three warmest ever recorded, after 2011 and 2015, with a positive temperature anomaly of 1 degree Celsius, and of the three more dry, together with 1965 and 1981, with a precipitation deficit of 28 percent compared to the average.

And as for the hydro-logical year, from October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017, it has been characterized by being very dry throughout the country, with 551 liters per square meter accumulated for the whole of Spain, which represents a deficit of 15 percent with respect to the average (648 liters). (December 21, 2017, EFE/Practica Español)

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Question 1
En la noticia se dice que…
se prevé que las temperaturas desciendan más de lo habitual en invierno.
las temperaturas de este invierno serán las mismas que las del año anterior.
se espera que haga más calor de lo habitual durante este invierno.
Question 2
Según el texto…
no es frecuente que los inviernos sean cálidos en España.
este podría ser el primer invierno cálido que se registra en España.
es usual que no haga mucho frío en España en invierno.
Question 3
Los expertos…
no creen que haya muchas precipitaciones durante este invierno.
descartan que llueva en la zona septentrional de España.
aseguran que habrá más precipitaciones de lo habitual durante este invierno.
Question 4
¿Han aumentado el número de precipitaciones durante este año?
No se sabe.
Question 5
Los expertos achacan la ausencia de precipitaciones al cambio climático.
Para nada.
¡Imposible saberlo!
Desde luego que sí.
Question 6
Según el texto...
es frecuente que haya pocas precipitaciones en otoño.
el pasado otoño fue en general poco lluvioso y cálido.
se registraron más precipitaciones de lo habitual en el pasado otoño.
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